The growing burden of chronic disease is a huge challenge for healthcare services world over 😉3 Persons with chronic diseases require sustained engagement with the healthcare delivery system over the course of their lives 😁 They also need support for skills to manage their disease condition more than would be required for an acute health condition. Primary healthcare is the most accessible level of healthcare.4 LMICs have traditionally been geared towards acute care. A redesign of primary healthcare that addresses chronicity’s challenges is urgently needed.5 
Chronic diseases are conditions lasting at least 1 year in duration and, when poorly managed, they can negatively impact the lives of older adults.1 The impact of chronic disease is staggering: 63%–67% of deaths in Canada and the USA are caused by cancer, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases.2–4 Dementia, another chronic disease, has become very relevant in caring for ageing populations as it is often responsible for older adults moving to nursing homes (NH).5 NHs are especially impacted by chronic disease, as individuals often need care for several chronic diseases and symptoms, leading to complex care needs and clinical uncertainty and/or difficulty in addressing those needs.6–8 (last edited 36 days ago by Haneef Wetzel from Maturin, Venezuela) 
Studies that included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), clinical trials with controlled participants, and controlled time series studies were included. These studies included people aged 18 and over who had chronic health problems such as asthma, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and heart disease. The inclusion of systematic reviews from previous years was not possible. Modified by Iffany Eschilla, July 28, 2021 
Internationally, there have been many organizational models that can be used to manage CNCD. One of the most popular and well-respected models for managing CNCD is the Chronic care Model (CCM) (see Figure 1), which places emphasis on integrating informed, active patients with proactive, and prepared healthcare professionals. health care teams. CCM states that this will require a well-organized health system, linked to resources within the wider community. Many countries have adopted or modified the CCM. In 2002, WHO produced an expanded version of the model—the Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions (ICCC) Framework, which gives greater emphasis to community and policy aspects of improving health care for chronic disease. Other models that are similar to these can be used as a guide for the delivery of CNCD healthcare in specific countries. We are grateful to Keyo Rector for pointing it out.