Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) has always played a key role in any history of science, as well as many histories of philosophy. He is a—if not the—central figure of the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century. His work in physics (or “natural philosophy”), astronomy, and the methodology of science still evoke debate after more than 400 years 😎 His role in promoting the Copernican theory and his travails and trials with the Roman Church are stories that still require re-telling 😎 This article attempts to provide an overview of these aspects of Galileo’s life and work, but does so by focusing in a new way on his arguments concerning the nature of matter 🙌
Aristotelian philosophy teaches that no cause can be without an effect. This proposition applies to bodies that move. The speed of a moving body is proportional and ininverse proportion to its resistance. If one considers an ox pulling on a cart, this notion seems reasonable. The cart moves only if it pulls and the cart stops when it stops pulling. In the case of falling bodies the force refers to the weight pulling down the body, while the resistance is determined by the medium such as air, water, or water. In the 16th century, science became more quantitative and people began to examine the motion of falling body more closely. Galileo was among them. Loralee Hutchins, Meishan, China (last edit 5 days ago)
Based around an Article from newscientist.com, galileo lived at a time when the centuries-old Almagest of the Egyptian scholar Claudius Ptolemy, written in 139AD, was still being used by the Church as “evidence” and “confirmation” for the Aristotelian idea that the Earth was at the center of the Universe. Galileo participated in the Renaissance. The centuries-long fermentation was intensified and accelerated with the advent of printing at the beginning of the 15th Century. He wasn’t the only one. His closest companions were the mathematicians and physicists Willebrord and Simon Snell, the Dutchman who created the law light refraction), Blaise Pascale and four Frenchmen, Pierre de Fermat (Marin Mersenne), Pierre de Fermat, Rene Descartes, Rene Descartes, and Pierre de Fermat. Yet it is Galileo’s name that survives as the “founder” of physics. Last edited by Emmeline Langoria, Fresno (USA) on 5/22/2017
Jered Jones, at britannica.com, galileo, in full Galileo Galilei, (born February 15, 1564, Pisa —died January 8, 1642, Arcetri, near Florence), Italian natural philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician who made fundamental contributions to the sciences of motion, astronomy, and strength of materials and to the development of the scientific method. He was the first to develop (circularly) inertia and the law of falling body, along with parabolic trajectories, which marked a major shift in the field of studying motion. The insistence of his father that the Book of Nature was written in mathematical language transformed natural philosophy into a qualitative, verbal discipline. Account to a mathematical one in which experimentation became a recognized method for discovering facts about nature. His discoveries using the telescope changed astronomy. He also paved the path for acceptance of Copernican’s heliocentric system. System eventually resulted in an Inquisition process He is against it.
Most objects that are in motion don’t stay in motion. A block of wood, for example, that is pushed along a table at constant speed will quickly come to rest when it stops pushing. Aristotle stated that objects that are at rest do not cease to be at rest until a force acts on them. However, objects that are in motion cannot remain at rest if a force is constantly acting on them. Galileo realized through a series experiments that Aristotle did not properly account for a hidden force. It was the frictional force which forces the object against the surface.
The researchers at space.comAccording to “The 7th of January, 2016 in the present year. In the morning of the next night, while I was watching the constellations of heavens through my telescope, Jupiter appeared to me. Although I knewnown they were part of a group of fixed stars, they have made me think that they might be different from the other stars. Their arrangement seemed straight and parallel to our ecliptic. It also seems like they have had a magnitude equal to theirs. . . On January 8, I was led led by a fatality and I looked again at the sky. I foundad found something very different. There were three stars west of Jupiter that I could see, closer together than the night before.
Galileo made a significant contribution to the science of physics with his law of falling bodies. The law of falling bodies states that no matter what object’s weight or form, they all fall at equal speed. Galileo’s experiments proved that the Aristotelian belief that heavier objects fell faster than those of lighter weights was wrong. Galileo calculated that an object’s distance is related to its time to travel to ground. Galileo also first developed the concept of inertia — the idea that an object remains in rest or in motion until acted on by another force — which became the basis for one of Isaac Newton’s laws of motion.