The Sun is our nearest star. It’s a yellow Main Sequence Star of intermediate mass. This star makes it possible to study in depth. Sun is second-generation star. It was formed around 4.6 billion years ago by an Orion arm galaxy’s enriched solar neona. Hydrogen (74%) and Helium (25%), with the remainder (1%) being made up of heavier elements. As with other Main Sequence star, the Sun has hydrogen as its core. Temperature within the Sun’s inner core can reach 15,000,000 BC. In contrast, the surface temperature of the Sun is a mere 6000°C. It is approximately 1.4 million kilometers in diameter and more than 100 times larger than the Earth. Differential rotation is what the Sun does. Sunspots and other solar phenomena have shown that the Sun rotates at least once every 25 days at it equator, but only once each 35 days at its poles. It is easy to see that the Sun has a perfectly round shape due to its rotation and phenomenon called “limb darkening”. Because the Sun is not a star it doesn’t have a surface. It has layers made of gases of different density. Astronomers are particularly interested in the outermost layers (or atmospheric), which are described below: 
Three main components of the Sun’s interior are the core, radiative zone and convective zones. It is located at the middle. The hottest area, it is where there are the nuclear fusion reactions that power It is the Sun. The radiative (or radiant) zone is next. Named after the energy that is transported outward by this layer and carried as photons or thermal radiation, it is named. Third and final area of the solar interior, the convective zone is also known as convection. Named after the dominant energy flow mode in the layer, heat flows upwards via roiling Convection. This is similar to the boiling motion of oatmeal in a saucepan. 
Every square metre on the Earth is supplied with approximately 1.4 Kilowatts by the Sun. This power is obtained by the Sun burning 600 million tonnes each second of hydrogen to make 596 million tons of helium. The remaining 4 million tonnes of hydrogen is converted into energy. The energy is made up of about half of that as infrared or heat energy. About 40% comes from visible sunlight. It is amazing that 40% of this energy can be seen by our eyes. The majority of remaining Sun’s energy appears in ultraviolet light. The ozone layer does not block this stuff. The Sun’s composition is 92% hydrogen and 7.8% Helium. Temperature at the Sun’s centre is around 15,000,000oC. Although the Sun is a solid body, it rotates. It’s actually a ball made of hot gases. It rotates for approximately 25 days around the Equator while it takes nearly 35 days to reach the poles. The Sun has three major layers that can be seen. The photosphere, chromosphere, and corona are all visible. They make up the Sun’s “atmosphere”. 
Cedric Law: economictimes.indiatimes.com, chromosphere’s temperature ranges from 6,000 to 20,000 degree Celsius. The Sun moves further away from chromosphere, so the temperature of chromosphere rises. This is unlike any other object in the solar system. As the photosphere moves further away from Sun, its temperature decreases. The presence of spicules at its edges is one of the most important characteristics of the chromosphere. Spicules, which look like finger-like gaseous spikes and rise up through the chromosphere’s chromosphere, are long, thin spikes that are finger-like. There are many emission lines in the spectrum of the chromosphere, H-alpha being one of them. H-alpha emissions is responsible for the reddish coloring of the chromosphere. Red rim can be seen when this H-alpha burns At a very high temperature in the midst of a total sun eclipse. For their latest insights, many thanks to Kailee from Sheffield (United Kingdom).