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What Pharaoh Was In Power During The Exodus? (Solved)

The identity of Pharaoh in the Moses story has been much debated, but many scholars are inclined to accept that Exodus has King Ramses II in mind. The Bible confirms that the Israelites were to build “supply cities, Pithom and Ramses, for Pharaoh.” Egyptian records confirm that the kings of the 19th dynasty (ca 1293–1185 B.C.E.) launched a major mili­tary program in the Levant. As part of this effort, King Seti I (ca 1290–1279 B.C.E.) built a new garri­son city, which his successor, Ramses II (ca 1279– 1213 B.C.E.), later called Pi-Ramesses 😊 Ramses II also builtuilt a second city dedicated to his personal patron, Atum, called Per Atum 👍 These two cities are quite possibly the biblical Ramses and Pithom. [1]
Ramses II’m had becoming king as a teenager and reigned for 67 years. He aspired to defeat the Hittites and control all of Syria, but in the fifth year of his reign Ramses walked into a Hittite trap laid for him at Kadesh, on the Orontes River in Syria. By sheer determination he had fought his way out, but in the light of his purpose the battle was an utter failure. Yet Ramses, like all the pharaohs, claimed to be divine; therefore, the had defeat had to be interpreted as a marvellous victory in which he alone subdued the Hittites. His wounded ego expressed itself in massive building operations throughout Egypt, and before his reign ended the boast of his success literally filled acres of wall space. (we really appreciate Kelton Call from Zhengzhou, China for telling us). [2]
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First, we need to acknowledge that stopping this violence as quickly as possible is not God’s main purpose. During the whole of the encounters with Pharaoh, Israel are still presumably labouring in the brick pits. Indeed, Israel fade into the background for much of Exodus 5-11, where the focus is on the encounters between three figures: God, Pharaoh and Moses. By examining these encounters and the explanations within them, we can gain a greater understanding of why God acts as he does. We will look at one explanation to Pharaoh in particular (9:13-19). Then we will look at the hardening as a separate explanation to Moses. The fact that these explanations are given to different people is crucial in helping us as readers to understand this narrative. (last emended 38 days ago by Thurston Simms from Chongjin, North Korea) [3]
As reported by the analysts at, so who was the Pharaoh of the Exodus? The Torah and commentators give us almost no clue. Although the Torah’s depiction of Egyptian life is completely consistent with our historical knowledge of the time (see here), it gives us no indication of the precise identity of the Pharaoh who drowned in the sea. Pharaohs – either in Joseph’s time or in Moses’s – are never identified by anything more than their title, or other generic titles such as the king of Egypt. (Some of the later ones, such as Pharaohs Necho and Taharqa, are mentioned by name by later prophets. See for example II Kings 19:9 and 23:29.) In fact, the Pharaohs considered themselves gods themselves, and so very little distinction was made historically between one Pharaoh and the next. (many thanks to Kimia Lim for their amazing insights). [4]
Before the coming of the Israelite kings whose reigns are reliably dated in the annals of Assyria (I.e. In the period before 853BC), assigning precise dates to particular people or events in the Old Testament is fraught with difficulties. A round-topped stone stela, which can be seen in the British Museum in London, records King Ahab of Israel and King Adad-idri (Ben-Hadad) of Aram taking part in a joint venture against King Shalmaneser III of Assyria at the Battle of Karkar in 853BC. This date is the earliest Old Testament date that can be corroborated from a non-Biblical source. Any date before 853BC is uncertain and may be hotly disputed. [5]
If the dates of the Egyptian dynasties are shifted, Neferhotep I emerges as a possible Pharaoh of the exodus. Neferhotep was a ruler during the Thirteenth Dynasty, and his predecessor, Amenemhat III, had no surviving sons. Amenemhat’s childless daughter, Sobekneferu (possibly the princess of Exodus 2:5–10), marked the sudden end of the Twelfth Dynasty. Neferhotep’s reign is associated with the Ipuwer Papyrus, a record of an era of calamity within Egypt (see Exodus 3:19–20). Further, he was succeeded by his brother, Sobkhotpe IV, rather than by his son, Wahneferhotep (see Exodus 11:4–5; 12:29). Notably, Neferhotep did not leave behind mummified remains, perhaps indicating that he was a victim of the incident at the Red Sea (Exodus 14:28). Soon after his reign, a people group known as the Hyskos conquered much of Egypt, consistent with what would happen to a nation newly weakened by the decimation of its army (see Exodus 12:31–36). [6]

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Mehreen Alberts

Written by Mehreen Alberts

I'm a creative writer who has found the love of writing once more. I've been writing since I was five years old and it's what I want to do for the rest of my life. From topics that are close to my heart to everything else imaginable!

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