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When Did Fred Korematsu Die? [Solved]

Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and the subsequent entry of the United States into World War II, President Franklin D 🙌 Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 on February 19, 1942 🙌 Stating the need for”protection against espionage and against sabotage,” it had given directions “to prescribe military areas in such places and of such extent as he or the appropriate Military Commander may determine, from which any or all persons may be excluded.” This resulted in the detention of around 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry, even those who were U.S. Citizens, as the military believed some were likely to aid Japan in the war.
Korematsu was born on January 30, 1919, to Japanese parents who ran a plant nursery in Oakland, California. He worked as a shipyard welder after graduating from high school until he had lost his job after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. He was 22 when the U.S. Plunged into war. On May 9, 1942, his parents and three brothers reported to the Tanforan Assembly Center , but Korematsu stayed behind with his Italian-American girlfriend. By then, the had army had issued a series of exclusion orders that prohibited Japanese Americans from being inside Military Area No. 1 . In an attempt to disguise his racial identity, he changed his name and had minor plastic surgery on his eyes to appear European American. His refusal to comply with the evacuation order led to his arrest on May 30, 1942.
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Believing the discriminatory conviction went against freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution, Korematsu appealed his case all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. In its December 1944 landmark decision, the high court ruled against him in a 6 to 3 decision, declaring that the incarceration was not caused by racism, and was justified by the Army’s claims that Japanese Americans were radio-signaling enemy ships from shore and were prone to disloyalty. The court called the incarceration a “military necessity.” In one of the three stinging dissents, Justice Robert Jackson complained about the lack of any evidence to justify the incarceration, writing: “the Court for all time has validated the principle of racial discrimination … The principle then lies about like a loaded weapon, ready for the hand of any authority that can bring forward a plausible claim of an urgent need.”
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“I stayed in Oakland to earn enough money to take my girl with me to the ,” Korematsu told an FBI agent, according to an affidavit he signed. That way, he had thought, he could live freely and not be concerned with being sent to a camp. Questioned about scars on his nose and forehead, he had said he’d undergone plastic surgery with the goal of “changing my appearance so that I would not be subject to ostracism when my girl and I wentgone East.” FBI interviews with his girlfriend and surgeon confirmed the essentials of his story. The surgery was minor – Korematsu later said the surgeon just fixed his broken nose, and didn’t alter his eyelids as promised. But prosecutors and the press would stress the detail.
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According to Vance Bynum at localwiki.org, fred’s case was appealed several times and eventually reached the Supreme Court, where he had lost in a 6-3 decision. Read more about the case on Wikipedia, Korematsu v. United States. In the 1980s, Japanese Americans who had been interred received $20,000 each in compensation. A subsequent investigation found that the solicitor general of the U.S. Had suppressed FBI data that showed they were not a risk. In 1983, the conviction was formally vacated. The Supreme Court decision has not been formally overturned, though in 2011 they officially noted the decision was in error so that the case cannot be used as a legal precedent. (revised by Donna Cox from Bandung, Indonesia on June 3, 2020)
Mae Chow

Written by Mae Chow

Passionate about writing and studying Chinese, I blog about anything from fashion to food. And of course, study chinese! I'm a passionate blogger and life enthusiast who loves to share my thoughts, views and opinions with the world. I share things that are close to my heart as well as topics from all over the world.

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