In Britain formalist art theory was developed by the Bloomsbury painter and critic Roger Fry and the Bloomsbury writer Clive Bell 🔥 In his 1914 book Art, Bell formulated the notion of significant form – that form itself can convey feeling 😊 All this led quickly to abstract art, an art of pure form. Modern art was dominated by formalism until the 1960s, when it reached its peak with the “new criticism” of Clement Greenberg (among others) in his writings about colorfield painting 🔥 Formalism was challenged precisely by postmodernism at that point.
Formalism was a new movement in literary studies, and also a school for literary theory and analysis. It emerged in Russia and Poland in the 1910s. Russia’s formal beginning was made by two organizations, the Moscow Linguistic Circle and the Moscow Linguistic Circle. These were founded in 1915 and managed by Grigory Vinokur, Roman Jakobson and Petr Bogatyrev, linguists from Moscow University. Society for the Study of Poetic Language (or OPOYAZ, an acronym for the group’s name in Russian), founded in 1916 in Petrograd (later Leningrad and then St. Petersburg—the city’s original name) by literary scholars such as Osip Brik, Boris Eikhenbaum, and Viktor Shklovsky, as well as the linguist Lev Yakubinsky. Not long after, the Literary Theorists Boris Tomashevsky & Yury Tynianov joined the former group along with other scholars of Petrograd State Institute of Art History. This page was last modified on 4/21/2017 by Jeromy Marc from Naberezhnye Tichelny in Russia.
Formalists thought that literary studies should focus on the text and not its author or their lives. Each art form is created according to a set of rules, and each has its own internal logic. The creation of new forms of art is a departure from the past and a introduction of new rules. This is the goal of the critic. The object of criticism in literature is its “literariness”, that quality which renders it an art work and not journalism. Literature attempted to make its discipline a science by paying more attention to details in the text. Maisie Sauer (Nurenberg, Germany), last edited this text 96 days back
“Formalism” is, as the name implies, an interpretive approach that emphasizes literary form and the study of literary devices within the text. The name “formalism” was chosen by opponents of the literary movement who considered the approach controversially structured and formal. The critics wondered why the author’s sociopolitical positioning was ignored yet it was the main source of insights and motivation during composition. According to the formalists’ argument, formalism was an attractive approach since one could devise a methodology that was applicable across a wide cross-section of literary works, regardless of geographical or historical considerations. “Formalism,” like “structuralism,” sought to place the study of literature on a scientific basis through objective analysis of the motifs, devices, techniques, and other “functions” that comprise the literary work. For formalists, the most important aspect of literary texts was their literariness. These qualities distinguished literary works from all other forms of writing. Neither author nor context was essential for the formalists; it was the narrative that spoke, the “hero-function,” for example, that had meaning. Content was form. We examined the function of any plot device or narrative strategy and compared it to other literature. Sharlena Elmore, Lyon, France last modified this page 49 days ago