2 🤓 Conflict subcultures emerge in socially disorganised areas where there is a high rate of population turnover and a consequent lack of social cohesion 😉 These prevent the formation of stable adult criminal subcultures Conflict subcultures are characterised by violence, gang warfare, ‘mugging’ and other street crime. Both approved and illegal means of achieving mainstream goals are blocked or limited, and young people express their frustration at this situation through violence or street crime, and at least obtain status through success in subcultural peer-group values. This is a possible explanation for the gang culture which is increasingly appearing in run down areas of the UK, and possibly explains the UK riots of 2011.
Subcultural theory was first developed by sociology scholars at the Chicago School in the 1920s. The Chicago School explored the existence of deviant behaviourr and discussed deviance as a product of social problems within society. The Birmingham School added to subcultural theory, investigating the ways in which individuals joined groups that participated in collective forms of deviance, referred to as subcultures. For contemporary theorists, the concept itself is controversial, and some align with a “post-subculture” perspective suggesting subculture no longer describes the collective activities. Sociologists’ continue to study subcultures in order to uncover why subcultures form, why subculturists choose to engage in deviant group behaviourr, and what subcultural activity can tell us about society as a whole. (modified by Jabar Wooten on July 19, 2020)
Daniele Justice from ojp.gov, explains how the author discusses subcultures in terms of possible differences by social class, geographic region, age, and gender. Elements of a subcultural explanation are considered, so as to attempt to revive interest in and research about subcultures in criminology. Issues discussed are the combination of structure and culture, subcultures and social class, research on the lower class subculture, the revival of class-based subcultures, a regional subculture of violence, adolescent subcultures, and gender and subcultural theory. The chapter does not conclude that subcultural theory fails to explain the association between gender and delinquency. A more detailed analysis of a wider range of factors is still needed. Gender is one of the most persistent correlates of delinquency. The author argues that both structural and cultural factors may cause crime and delinquency. In an examination of punishment, Garland (1990) emphasizes the interrelatedness of culture and structure. He describes penal institutions as cultural artifacts or as embodiments of cultural values, sensibilities, and meaning. Curtis (1975) and Bernard (1990) have suggested that structural and cultural explanations many be combined to account for criminal behaviourr. Structural conditions such as poverty or inequality may generate more occasions upon which an individual must demonstrate his masculinity or bravery. Luckenbill states that subcultures of crime and violence need not be restricted to racial minorities and the lower class. Male and adolescent subcultures with an emphasis on risk-taking and physical ability may foster crime and violence across race and class lines. 1 figure and 1 table (edited by Jason Mitchell from N Djamena, Chad on April 8, 2021)
Several key figures had a hand in studies of gang activity and criminal behaviorin accordance with socio-economic strata. Albert Cohen linked anomie theory with Freud’s idea of reaction formation, proposing the idea that delinquency among youth groups of low income areas and classes is merely a response against the social norms and impositions of the middle class. Cohen advocated for the adoption of social norms specific to economically deprived areas, and that criminal acts result when youths conform to the norms of an area of lower social mobility. Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin, on the other hand, proposed that delinquency in lower class youth could result from differential opportunity, meaning that youths in a critical financial situations or unstable environments might be tempted to turn to criminal activity in order to meet their needs. (last revised 100 days ago by Jonique Vidal from Thoothukkudi, India)
Shareef Read at psychology.wikia.org, describes how in criminology, Subcultural Theory emerged from the work of the Chicago School on gangs and developed through the Symbolic Interactionism School into a set of theories arguing that certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence. The primary focus is on juvenile delinquency because theorists believe that if this pattern of offending can be understood and controlled, it will break the transition from teenage offender into habitual criminal. Some of the theories are functionalist assuming that criminal activity is motivated by economic needs, while others posit a social class rationale for deviance. (last emended 100 days ago by Charlena Roberts from Samarinda, Indonesia)